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Thursday, April 7, 2011

Media, Journalism & Mass Communication

“Don't part with your illusions. When they are gone you may still exist, but you have ceased to live.” - Mark Twain

Journalism / Public relations (Examination conducted by APPSC (Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission) for the post of APRO Exam held on 9.3.2008

In communication the person who sends the message is known as:
(1) decoder
(2) encoder
(3) feeder
(4) speaker

The cues of verbal response from the receivers are referred to as:
(1) communication
(2) events
(3) feedback
(4) transaction

Because people have their own meanings, communication is basically:
(1) popular
(2) angular
(3) imaginary
(4) personal

The chaotic situation which is communication oriented is called:
(1) entropy
(2) atrophy
(3) anarchy
(4) civility

Intra-personal communication takes place:
(1) within
(2) between two people
(3) between groups
(4) through mass media

Communication provides individuals:
(1) honour
(2) identity
(3) liberty
(4) feedback

In mass communication, feedback is usually:
(1) perfect
(2) immediate
(3) delayed
(4) absent

The media interpretation of the environment is labeled as:
(1) entertainment
(2) education
(3) campaign
(4) correlation

For people with limited social contracts, mass media offer:
(1) work
(2) ideas
(3) details
(4) substitute companionship

In mass communication, semantic noise can be reduced by:
(1) controlling media
(2) technical efficiency
(3) changing the source
(4) repetition of message

In the modern world, communication is equated with:
(1) politics
(2) money
(3) power
(4) issues

Audiences for mass media are:
(1) homogeneous
(2) heterogeneous
(3) confined to one place
(4) limited

The silver bullet model of communication is attributed to:
(1) Wilbur Schramm
(2) Harold Lasswell
(3) David Berlo
(4) Everett Rogers

The people’s choice theory of communication refers to:
(1) two-step flow
(2) ritual
(3) message transmission
(4) source identification

The term cool medium is used for:
(1) radio
(2) television
(3) internet
(4) cinema

Cognitive dissonance produces a state of:
(1) positivism
(2) pleasure
(3) tension
(4) conformity

The term ‘First World’ refers to countries that are:
(1) agricultural
(2) backward
(3) in Africa
(4) industrialized

The tradition of diffusion of innovation research started with
(1) informatic
(2) commerce
(3) agriculture
(4) banking

The non-adopters of innovations were described as:
(1) slow movers
(2) laggards
(3) traditionalists
(4) late runners

Kheda communication project was conducted in:
(1) Andhra Pradesh
(2) Bihar
(3) Gujarat
(4) Haryana

For national development, mass media were described as:
(1) prompters
(2) magic multipliers
(3) streamers
(4) refiners

In development communication, empathy is:
(1) commercial
(2) political
(3) psychological
(4) sociological

Initially, the economic model of Walt Rostow had:
(1) two stages
(2) three stages
(3) four stages
(4) five stages

Differential levels of communication skills will lead to:
(1) digital divide
(2) competition
(3) knowledge gap
(4) motivation

The UNESCO minimum standard for media development is, per 100 persons:
(1) 5 copies of daily newspapers
(2) 10 copies of daily newspapers
(3) 15 copies of daily newspapers
(4) 20 copies of daily newspapers

Exposure to TV programmes on development by rural audience may result in:
(1) ceiling effect
(2) side effect
(3) direct effect
(4) indirect effect

The title of a newspaper on the top of the front page is called:
(1) nameplate
(2) masthead
(3) title
(4) imprint

Regular places of reporting are called:
(1) assignments
(2) beats
(3) operational area
(4) coverage area

……Journalism attempts to influence people
(1) Yellow
(2) Investigative
(3) Advocacy
(4) Citizen

Investigative reporting may have to face the threat of legal action for:
(1) contempt of court
(2) contempt of parliament
(3) sedition
(4) defamation

The suppression of the identity of official spokespersons has become redundant because of:
(1) new technology
(2) new laws
(3) radio
(4) television

Commonly page 3 deals with reports related to the social activities of
(1) bureaucrats
(2) common people
(3) celebrities
(4) traders

Reporting in camera proceedings of a judicial court will invite action under:
(1) Official Secrets Act
(2) Contempt of Court
(3) Defamation
(4) RTI
Confidentiality of news source is an issue of conflict all over the world with:
(1) the judiciary
(2) the other media
(3) media consumers
(4) trade unions

Pool reporting practice is professionally considered as:
(1) illegal
(2) unethical
(3) practical
(4) inexpensive
An off-the record statement can be published provided
(1) it is interesting to public
(2) it is in the public interest
(3) it is sourced from another person
(4) it is not prohibited by law

The most magazine content is obtained from:
(1) syndicated
(2) news agency supplies
(3) staff
(4) outsourcing

The news agency of the world with the highest turnover is:
(1) Associated press
(2) Kyodo
(3) Reuters
(4) DPA

The Indian news agency which made the news in recent months over change in ownership is:
(1) PTI
(2) UNIT
(3) Samachar Bharathi
(4) Times News

The heart of a newspaper is its:
(1) editorial
(2) page 3
(3) policy
(4) style

Copy released by public relationists is known as:
(1) green copy
(2) canned copy
(3) dirty copy
(4) clean copy

The word or round about expressions in news copy are referred to as:
(1) rough copy
(2) raw material
(3) circumlocution
(4) crude creed

A crossline is a single line:
(1) dateline
(2) creditline
(3) cutline
(4) headline

When two elements are placed side by side or one beneath the other, such an arrangement is described as:
(1) casing
(2) flow
(3) bumper
(4) sequence

The correct expression of words is known as:
(1) syntax
(2) diction
(3) hyperbole
(4) gerund

Different takes of a new story received from a news agency are identified with the help of:
(1) slugline
(2) byline
(3) symbols
(4) proof readers

Squib is the other name for a/an:
(1) advertisement
(2) filler
(3) picture
(4) graph

A headline across the top of front page over nameplate is called:
(1) streamer
(2) banner
(3) skyline
(4) topline

Big pictures, large headlines and short texts are the features of:
(1) brace make up
(2) vertical make up
(3) horizontal make up
(4) circus make up

Modular design of newspapers will have a/an:
(1) optical centre
(2) headline
(3) visual grid
(4) statement

Arial is an example for…… type face
(1) Roman
(2) Vertical sons serif
(3) Text
(4) Novelty

Capital letters, small letters, numbers and punctuation marks of one style in different sizes put together is called a:
(1) font
(2) ligature
(3) group
(4) family

Printing method based on the principle that oil and water do not mix is:
(1) letter-press printing
(2) off-set printing
(3) screen printing
(4) gravure printing

CorelDraw is a drawing and illustration programme which is:
(1) code based
(2) line based
(3) vector based
(4) frame based

Software used for designing newspaper pages is:
(2) Maya
(3) Photoshop
(4) Quark Xpress

Newspapers are printed using:
(1) thermographic process
(2) gravure process
(3) intaglio process
(4) off-set process

The space between two lines of text is called:
(1) gutter
(2) kerning
(3) leading
(4) pica

Bitmap images are made up of:
(1) squares
(2) pixels
(3) vertical lines
(4) horizontal lines

The Radio Club of Bengal came into being in:
(1) 1923
(2) 1924
(3) 1925
(4) 1926

The Indian State Broadcasting Service in 1936 became:
(1) East India Broadcasting
(2) Indian Broadcasting Company
(3) All India Radio
(4) Radio India

At the time of Independence, India had broadcasting stations numbering:
(1) five
(2) six
(3) seven
(4) eight

Broadcasting, as per the Indian Constitution, is in:
(1) the state list
(2) the concurrent list
(3) the Directive Principles
(4) the union list

The first private radio station in India after independence was established in:
(1) Bangalore
(2) Hyderabad
(3) Mumbai
(4) Chennai

The Verghese working group suggested the establishment of a national broadcast trust called:
(1) Prasar Bharati
(2) Akash Bharati
(3) Tarang Bharati
(4) Rashtra Bharati

The commercial service of AIR, Vividh Bharati, was launced in:
(1) 1955
(2) 1956
(3) 1957
(4) 1958

The first experimental television service was started in 1959 at:
(1) 1973
(2) 1974
(3) 1975
(4) 1976

The first television soap opera of India was:
(1) Buniyad
(2) Humlog
(3) Nukkad
(4) Ramayan

The STAR is based in:
(1) Hong Kong
(2) Bangkok
(3) Mumbai
(4) Colombo

Broadcasting frequencies for different countries are allocated by:
(1) ITU
(2) ABU
(3) FCC

The geosynchronous orbit for satellites is names after:
(1) Marshal Mac Luhan
(2) Arthur C. Clarke
(3) Wilbur Schramm
(4) Vikram Sarabhai

Prasar Bharati came into existence in:
(1) 1995
(2) 1996
(3) 1997
(4) 1998

The first chairman of Prasar Bharati was:
(1) Pramod Mahajan
(2) Jaipal Reddy
(3) UR Rao
(4) Nikhil Chakravarthy

The most frequently occurring value in a frequency distribution is called:
(1) numeral
(2) mean
(3) mode
(4) median

AC Neilsen specialized in the audience research of:
(1) effects
(2) ratings
(3) uses and gratification
(4) share

Audience research in India began with
(1) radio
(2) cinema
(3) television
(4) internet

Simulation approach in media research demands the creation of:
(1) Audience
(2) Artificial conditions
(3) Infrastructure
(4) Data

The method of tenacity uses the element of:
(1) tradition
(2) science
(3) logic
(4) description

In media research, concepts that lack operational definitions are known as:
(1) valid concepts
(2) invalid concepts
(3) empirical concepts
(4) hypothetical concepts

A deductive explanation is strong on its:
(1) observation
(2) approach
(3) categorization
(4) predictive ability

Empiricism is the basic principle of:
(a) philosophical approach
(b) spiritual approach
(c) scientific approach
(d) sociological approach

The analytical induction technique is used in:
(1) quantitative research
(2) qualitative research
(3) historical research
(4) descriptive research

From 1950 to 2000, researchers heavily focused on the effects of:
(1) television on children
(2) films on children
(3) internet on children
(4) advertisements on children

One of the components of a classic research design is:
(1) exploration
(2) comparison
(3) simplification
(4) unitization

When every unit of population has an equal chance of selection, that method of sampling is called:
(1) non-probability sampling
(2) snow-ball sampling
(3) probability sampling
(4) incidental sampling

The first daily newspaper of Great Britain was:
(1) the Oxford Gazette
(2) the Spectator
(3) the Daily Express
(4) the Daily Courant

The first effort to start a newspaper in India was made by:
(1) William Carey
(2) James Augustus Hickey
(3) William Bolts
(4) James Silk Buckingham

The first newspaper of the Bombay Presidency was:
(1) Bombay Courier
(2) Bombay Herald
(3) Bombay Gazette
(4) Bombay Times

Robert Knight was the editor of:
(1) The Statesman
(2) The Pioneer
(3) The Tribune
(4) The Hindustan Times

The largest circulated language newspaper of India is:
(1) Anand Bazar Patrika
(2) Malayala Manorama
(3) Eenadu
(4) Rajastan Patrika

Kandukuri Veereshalingam Panthulu edited:
(1) Samadarshini
(2) Andhra Bhasha Sanjeevini
(3) Vivekavardhini
(4) Andhra Patrika

The first amendment to the Indian Constitution restricted the freedom os:
(1) religion
(2) citizenship
(3) association
(4) speech and expression

The Newspaper (Price and Page) Act, 1956, was challenged by:
(1) Mathrubhoomi
(2) Deccan Herald
(3) Sakal
(4) Sandesh

In India, the criminal liability for defamation is explained in:
(1) S 125 of CrPC
(2) S 499 of IPC
(3) S 425 of IPC
(4) S 357 of Cr PC

The Official Secrets Act, 1923, is in conflict with:
(1) the right to information
(2) the right to reply
(3) the right to correction
(4) the right to free speech

The institution abolished during the period of internal emergency was:
(1) DAVP
(2) Press Council of India
(3) Public Enterprise Board
(4) AAAI

The office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India was first located at:
(1) Jalandhar
(2) New Delhi
(3) Shimla
(4) Chandigarh

The copyright of an author will continue for…… even after death
(1) 25 years
(2) 30 years
(3) 40 years
(4) 50 years

Reprimand is a type of punishment for:
(1) contempt of court
(2) copyright violation
(3) sedition
(4) breach of privilege

The AIR code does not permit the broadcast of the advertisements of:
(1) textiles
(2) automobiles
(3) tobacco products
(4) softdrinks

The first public sector organization in India to employ public relations practice was:
(1) BEL
(2) BHEL
(3) Indian Railway
(4) HAL

The code of ethics for public relations professionals is called:
(1) PR code
(2) Code of Athens
(3) Code of IPR
(4) PR Etiquette

Public relations is described as a function of:
(1) management
(2) communication
(3) law
(4) engineering

The professional practice of public relations emerged first in:
(1) United States of America
(2) Great Britain
(3) France
(4) Denmark

The International Public Relations Association has its headquarters at:
(1) Paris
(2) London
(3) New York
(4) Sydney

Public relations profession demands:
(1) accounting
(2) publicity
(3) dynamism
(4) marketing

The first stage of public relations practice is :
(1) writing
(2) editing
(3) networking
(4) planning

Interaction of experiences, beliefs and knowledge will contribute to the creation of:
(1) advertising
(2) publication
(3) corporate image
(4) corporate profit

The trend towards public relations practice was set in the United States by:
(1) Benjamin Franklin
(2) PT Burman
(3) Joseph Pulitzer
(4) William Randolph Hearst

A great practitioner of public relations in the United State was:
(1) Ivy Lee
(2) Nelson Rockefeller
(3) Jimmy Carter
(4) George Soros

Recognised as a part of public relations in the United States is:
(1) propaganda
(2) lobbying
(3) spying
(4) secret mission

The technique of propaganda acquired bad reputation during:
(1) the Vietnam War
(2) the Afghan War
(3) the World War II
(4) the Combodian unrest

The induction programmes are designed for:
(1) senior officers
(2) middle level workers
(3) new employees
(4) publicity staff

Public relations communication needs the element of:
(1) sympathy
(2) negativity
(3) pretending
(4) empathy

Communication through an informal structure is called
(1) rumour
(2) gossip
(3) grapevine
(4) control

Yogakshema is the house journal of:
(1) Corporation Bank
(2) Life Insurance Corporation of India
(3) Syndicate Bank
(4) ISRO

A major tool of internal communication in corporate houses today is:
(1) intranet
(2) megaphones
(3) demonstrations
(4) group meetings

A public view of organizational achievements is made possible by organizing:
(1) open houses
(2) field interviews
(3) radio spots
(4) TV ads

The first private sector company in India to have a public relations wing was:
(1) Cadbury
(2) Tata Steel
(3) Hindustan Lever
(4) Ranbaxy

The Public Relations Society of India was set up in:
(1) 1955
(2) 1956
(3) 1957
(4) 1958

The Public Relations Council of India is now operating from:
(1) Mumbai
(2) Hyderabad
(3) Bangalore
(4) Chennai

The forerunner of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting was:
(1) the War Committee
(2) the Central Committee
(3) the Directorate of Public Information
(4) the Directorate of Public Education

The press releases of the union government are provided to the press by:
(1) RRD
(2) PIB
(3) Field Publicity
(4) AIR

Lobbying in India is considered as:
(1) legal
(2) illegal
(3) ethical
(4) criminal

The diffusion of information on the union government’s programmes and policies in rural India is the function of:
(1) the Directorate of Field Publicity
(2) the Films Division
(3) the Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity
(4) Doordarshan

The PR objectives that are aimed to motivate are described as:
(1) ambitious
(2) simple
(3) spontaneous
(4) unnatural

A request to withhold publication of a new story until a specific date and time is referred to as:
(1) suspension
(2) embargo
(3) injunction
(4) stay

A series of curiosity provoking advertisements before the main campaign is known as:
(1) flyer
(2) pre-test
(3) teaser campaign
(4) crusade

Sponsorship expects a return in the form of:
(1) increased sales
(2) increase in share price
(3) recognition
(4) publicity

The major area of concern in organizing exhibitions and trade fairs is:
(1) the location
(2) the audience
(3) the budget
(4) the schedule

Organisation of conferences demands
(1) public support
(2) three-dimensional thinking
(3) medical aid
(4) modern gadgets

The public relations features to promote a product in a journal are described as:
(1) advertorials
(2) puff materials
(3) sponsored columns
(4) commercial features

The other name for attitude survey is:
(1) environment survey
(2) public survey
(3) private survey
(4) external survey

A public relations activity that measures the communication environment within an organization is identified as:
(1) information survey
(2) communication audit
(3) awareness survey
(4) interaction audit

An organisation’s values and behaviour contribute to its:
(1) communication
(2) public appearance
(3) corporate culture
(4) routine business

A contact report is written by :
(1) the receptionist
(2) the company director
(3) the personal secretary
(4) the accounts executive

When an organization uses logo, livery and others for physical representation, it will lead to:

(1) uniformity
(2) difference
(3) corporate identity
(4) corporate awareness

Investment by private sector in socio-economic welfare programmes is called corporate:
(1) involvement
(2) social investment
(3) support
(4) social welfarism

Uniform style of typography and design is referred to as:
(1) house style
(2) corporate style
(3) institutional style
(4) internal style

When an organization presents its views on current issues including government policy through advocacy advertising, such a method is labeled as:
(1) opinion advertising
(2) issues advertising
(3) viewpoint advertising
(4) conviction advertising

The International code of social conduct is known as:
(1) protocol
(2) etiquette
(3) celebrity code
(4) reception management

The exclusivity fee for professional public relations services from time to time is designated as:
(1) honorarium
(2) remuneration
(3) retainer
(4) frequency fee

Speak-up schemes and quality circles are useful in:
(1) upward communication
(2) upward mobility
(3) promotion
(4) competition

A combination of seminar and practical discussion will result in a:
(1) conference
(2) programme
(3) symposium
(4) workshop

Name calling is a technique of:
(1) publicity
(2) propaganda
(3) advertising
(4) public relations

Gallup polls are conducted to measure:
(1) market potential
(2) celebrity images
(3) public opinion
(4) international relations

Public relations with corporate objectives is designated as
(1) corporate communication
(2) corporate relations
(3) media relations
(4) public communication

The basic creative concept of an advertising is known as:
(1) copy angle
(2) copy platform
(3) copy base
(4) copy test

A document with details of budget, target market, creative strategy, timing, product, objectives and research findings is called:
(1) brochure
(2) house plan
(3) media brief
(4) market profile

A key number is used to identity:
(1) the documents
(2) the punch cards
(3) the printed copies
(4) the advertisements

M.C.J Syllabus
Osmania University
Semester I

M 1. Communication Theory and International Communication
Unit - I: Major developments in communication theory—Dominant, Western perspectives - Marxist, structuralist, Neo-Marxist approaches. Critical Political Economy theory, Concept of Mass society and Information Society. Theories of Attitude change.

Unit - II: Mass Communication and culture—Frankfurt School and Critical Theory, Antonio Gramsci and Hegemony, Birmingham School and Critical Cultural Theory, Gender and Mass Media, John Fiske and Semiotic Analysis, Postmodernism.

Unit - III: Historical overview of international communication, NWIO – overview of the present order, emergence of the Third World demand for New Order, Critique of international news values, Non-Aligned News Agency Pool.

Issues in international communication: Communication imbalances in news, radio, TV, film, ICT, advertising and PR; Technology – trans-border data flow;

Unit - IV : Democratization of communication – new technology, alternative media. Concept of globalisation, Impact on media systems, culture. Ownership and economics of international communication. International media and other organizations – ITU, WARC, IPDC, IPI, WTO.

Unit- V: Regional cooperation: satellites: Intelsat, Arabsat; co-productions; information exchange; International Intellectual Property Rights regime, issues of open borders for media software/professionals.

M 2. Communication Research Methods and Applications

Unit - I: Research methods in social sciences. Development of mass media research; Media research and scientific method. Types of research: Basic, applied, formative, processual, evaluative, quantitative/ qualitative, action research, audience analysis, impact- effects and effectiveness studies; Research Process; formulation of the problem, survey of literature, familiarisation with source materials like bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, monographs etc., rationale for the study. Hypothesis- purpose, role, criteria.

Unit - II: Elements of Research: Concepts and constructs, types of variables, reliability and validity. Research Methods: Experiments, Survey, case studies, observations, content analysis, longitudinal studies, historical studies. Levels of measurement – nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio , scaling (Thurstone, Guttman, Likert, Semantic Differential),

Unit - III: Sampling procedures- universe, population, and sample. Probability & non-probability sampling procedures, types of sampling methods - sample size, sample error, sample weightage Tools of data collection: Questionnaires, interview schedules, observation schedule, categorisation and measurement of content.. Quantitative and statistical Analysis: Introduction to statistical procedures Descriptive and inferential , Parametric and non-parametric - Chi-square test. T-Test: Analysis of Variance, Correlation, Partial Correlation, Simple Linear Regression, Multiple Regression.
Unit - IV: Areas of Research: Mass media analysis, research in print, audio visual media, advertising and public relations. Research in media effects: Anti-social and pro-social effects. Media research institutions. Current Communication research in India and problems.

Unit - V: Report Writing: Types of reports. Structure/ Format of a report; Essentials of report writing, documentation, footnotes, end notes, references, bibliography. Importance of style manuals. Ethics in media research.

M 3. Development and Rural Communication
Unit - I: Concepts of Development - theories and models of development - Dominant paradigm, modernisation, empowerment, participation, sustainable development etc.

Unit - II: Alternative models of development, Nature and concept of development communication; different perspectives; Western and Indian viewpoints.

Unit - III: Role of different media in development communication—Print, electronic and folk media. Use of ICTs and emerging technologies in development. Digital divide, Development-support-communication. Critical appraisal of efforts by government and non-government organisations (NGOs) o-economic uplift. Case studies in Devcom - Urban and rural perspectives.

Unit- IV: India’s rural scene, rural social structure, social change, patterns of rural communication, oral, informal and interpersonal communication. Traditional and folk forms, Barriers and accelerators to change.

Unit - V: Extension – nature, concept and characteristics of communication, structure of extension networks in India. Methods of extension- exhibitions, visual aids, training and visit system, case studies in extension.

Optional (Any one from 4 and 5)
M 4. Electronic Media - I

Unit- I: The Production Process: Stages of Production, Pre-production, Production, Post-production, Technologies Used in Production, Single-Camera, Multiple-Camera, Studio and Field Production, Visualisation: Images, Sounds, and the Creative Process. Proposal Writing, Timeline, Production Budget, Production Management, Scripting for documentaries, short films. Shooting Schedule.

Unit - II : Camera: Camera Positioning, White Balance, Lenses, Framing, Filters, Tape formats, Composition, Natural and artificial light, Types of Lights: Spotlights, Floodlights, Portable Lights, Light Meters, Lighting for Single and Multiple-Cameras. Lighting Aesthetics, Low-Key and High-key Lighting, Lighting Control in the Studio and Location, Light and Colour.

Unit - III: Script writing: Visual Thinking, Preparation for Scriptwriting, Research, Recce, Synopsis, and Outline, Treatment. Script writing Formats, Fiction Scriptwriting: Dramatic Structure, Narrative Structure, Characterization and Theme, Short Fiction Forms and Formats, Series and serials, teleplays and tele-films. Interactive Programmes, Talk Shows and Game shows. Non-fiction Scriptwriting—Documentary, Docu-drama, educational, ad films, Corporate and Institutional films.

Unit - IV: An overview of Television News and reporting, structure of Televisions News, News production process—Spot to Screen: Production Meetings. Editorial (News Planning, reporting) and Studio Production (Scripting, video clips, voiceover, story editing). Types of reporting—general and live. Different types of News-based programmes: Interviews, Talk shows, Live-In shows, Vox Populi, Production planning and Coordination,

Unit - V: Post Production: Linear and non-linear editing, Rushes, Log sheets, TCR, paper edits, SFX, Different types of graphics, animations. Mastering: Voice over, dubbing, mixing, titling.

M 5. Print Media - I
Unit - I: Major trends in print journalism—Content, language and design. Contemporary newspapers and magazines, styles in editing.

Unit - II: Slanting-streamlining copy to suit target audiences; rewriting, integrating copy from different sources. synoptic writing, excerpting. Use of charts, graphs and diagrams. Referencing, information storage and retrieval.

Unit - III: Trends in Sunday magazines, special sections & special supplements, Magazine editing - characteristics of features, types of features; news features, regular columns. Specialized magazines, Tabloids, News Analysis. Supplementing hard news with analysis. Interpreting news, Limitations and pitfalls, ethical dimensions. Collection and use of background material.

Unit - IV: Typography: new trends in the use of typefaces and page design. Principles of design - contemporary newspaper design. Relationship between Writing, Editing and Design (WED). Functions of Design, Designing the front page and inside pages. Designing special pages. Comparative study of design of different newspapers.

Unit - V: Newspaper production practices. Colour processing and printing. New developments in Printing technology--Digital printing, Impact of new information and communication technology on newspaper production. Use of satellites, Internet, V-Sat and other technologies.

Semester II

M 6. Corporate and Organisational Communication

Unit - I: Nature and types of organisations. Organisational Communication: nature, application, scope and its relevance in India and elsewhere. Schools of thought- Scientific Management, Human Relations and Systems approach.

Unit - II: Organisational structure and communication behaviour. Communication process in an organisation; types of communication; Cliques Grapevine, rumour, Networks- importance Network Analysis.

Unit - III: Organisational culture, PR and Change Management, Organsational Development. Communication in the Indian industry; Communication audit as an evaluation and maintaining system. Total quality management quality - Productivity, Human Resource Development.

Unit - IV : Corporate Social Responsibility – Concepts of issue analysis, issue management. Corporate PR and Environmental analysis; Crisis PR. Advance planning for Crisis Management and information dissemination; Corporate PR dossiers, Corporate Public Relations consultancies- Case studies of Corporate PR campaigns/departments in India.

Unit - V Public Information Management : Concept of Public Information - Disseminating agencies of Public Information in Government of India, State Governments, Planning Commission, Public Sector undertakings, etc. Corporate PR ethics, Research in PR Problems and prospects.

M 7. Integrated Marketing Communication

Unit - I: Concept of Integrated Marketing Communication process covering product price, place and promotion; Theories & Models of advertising: David - Oglivy and Rosser Reeves, Hierarchy of effects model; AIDA model, quick action model,

Unit - II: Marketing objectives, product positioning strategies, product life cycle, brands; branding strategies, brand equity, selection of advertising agency, Globalisation and trends in Indian advertising.

Unit - III: Consumer buying behaviour and advertising; consumer buying behaviour theories and Models, psychological and sociological perspectives

Unit - IV: Social marketing- importance and case studies, Indian rural markets, rural advertising, strategies, problems

Unit - V: Marketing and Market Research - Nature, scope and importance, Areas of Research- price research, sales promotion research. Product research (brand/logo), packaging research, Stages in the marketing research process - Sources of information - Methods of Marketing Research, motivation research. Market segmentation methods, Market research organisations in India. Case studies and evaluation.

M 8. Information and Communication Technologies and New Media

Unit - I: Evolution of Information and Communication Technologies. Information revolution and the concept of Information Society. Internet and communication across boundaries, Digital Divide, Development of Digital Technology--Convergence and its impact. Evolution of new media. CD-ROMS etc

Unit - II: Origin and growth of World Wide Web and Internet basics- URLs, HTML, hyper links, Search engines, Web databases, search and retrieval; Internet Service Providers (ISPs), bandwidth, Internet in India—Status and new developments and problems New media technologies—CD-ROM, Multimedia and emerging technologies. Video on Demand, Internet Radio and Web TV, Impact of new media on traditional media.

Unit - III: Writing for multimedia—Writing for print, audio, video, film and TV. Script formatting and HTML. Multimedia production team, Integrating text, graphics, audio, video. Image and video formats. Interactivity. Multimedia and its applications in education and training.
Unit - IV: Web Journalism: Unique features of Web, language, Web Pages, home pages, design and layout. Languages for Web-Page content, Internet newspaper editions, updates, Internet News Groups, e-mail, blogs. Internet as a tool for data gathering.

Unit - V: Evolution of e-journals, advantages and disadvantages. Internet Security /Privacy Policy/Privacy Report. Information and knowledge share, Internet and freedom of expression. Internet Regulation in different countries; Cyber law,

Optional (Any one from 9 and 10)

M 9. Electronic Media - II
Unit - I: Characteristics of a reporter/presenter: News sense, News gathering, Language and diction. Structure of a news room, Hierarchy, Editorial function: Story ideas, news planning—curtain raiser, event and closure. News selection process, news gathering and reporting. Ethical implications.
Techniques of Field production: Breaking news, Phone-in, Piece to Camera, Live, production coordination with camera and studio. Logistics.

Unit - II: Types of News presentation—Studio and Field, Live and recorded. Phone-ins, discussions, Types of Packaging, Types of News Bulletins, Organising a news bulletin, Time management, Top stories, Hard news, soft stories, News Capsules, Archiving, copyright, Panel production.

Unit - III: News gathering and transmission technology: Use of Cameras, OB Vans, computers, servers, video phones, and hubs. VSAT, Fibre optic lines, earth station and satellites,

Unit - IV: The Editing Process: Introduction, Editing Stages, Preliminary Editing, Final Editing, Editing systems, Linear, Non-linear. Principles of Editing. Editing Modes. Fiction, Non-fiction, Aesthetics.

Unit - V: Trends in radio broadcasting, development broadcasting, community radio, new broadcasting technologies—digital, satellite and web. Radio production practices, Planning a radio programme, Radio formats: news and newsreels, magazines, drama, feature, serials and music. Use of digital technology in production, Exercises in programme production.

M 10. Print Media - II (Optional)

Unit - I: Finance and business journalism. Financial and Business newspapers, and magazines, Areas of reporting financial and business aspects. Sources of Financial and Business news. Characteristics of financial reporting, Trends in financial and business journalism.

Unit - II: Understanding broad features of economy. Structure of finance and banking sector, regulatory, institutions - Reserve Bank of India, SEBI, Indian Banks Association, Chambers of Commerce & Industry. Policies - fiscal, industrial, agricultural & trade.

Unit - III: Importance of budgets - national and state. Analysing business trends, interpreting and presenting statistical data of business, industry & finance.

Unit - IV: Importance of science journalism. Role of science and technology news, sources techniques, writing science for various audiences- science news & features in various media interpreting research reports, use of illustrations- problems, emerging areas- medicine, energy, science magazines,. Research and development agencies.

Unit - V: Reporting specialised areas like human rights, child rights, terrorism- war guidelines, propaganda, abuse, standpoint of warring parties, embedded journalism

Project Report

Student should submit a project report related to communication and allied subjects based on research or produce a paper on contemporary issues or a documentary under the guidance of any faculty member, which will be graded.

Scientific management (also called Taylorism, the Taylor system, or the Classical Perspective) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflow processes, improving labor productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911). Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work.

In management literature today, the greatest use of the concept of Taylorism is as a contrast to a new, improved way of doing business. In political and sociological terms, Taylorism can be seen as the division of labour pushed to its logical extreme, with a consequent de-skilling of the worker and dehumanisation of the workplace.

Processes of Communication in a Business Organisation

The process of communication would be as follows: Message conceived ? decision made to send message and reasons why. Message encoded ? information for notice and what sort of layout is going to be used etc. Communications medium selected ? communication method selected, in this case notice. Message decoded ? language and knowledge used to send out the right message. Message interpreted ? meaning of notice, recipients? view. Feedback supplied ? feedback supplied to sender e.g. opinions, response etc.


A clique is an exclusive group of people who share common interests, views, purposes, or patterns of behavior. A clique is a subset of individuals from a larger group, who are more closely identified with one another than the remaining members of the group, and who exchange something among themselves, such as friendship, affection, or information.[1]

A clique has an informal structure, and it is composed of more than two people. All the members of the group have some type of relationship with one another, and thus the group is tightly knit together as a type of social network.
Organizational culture
Organizational culture, or corporate culture, comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. Organizational values are beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals. From organizational values develop organizational norms, guidelines or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behavior by employees in particular situations and control the behavior of organizational members towards one another"

Senior management may try to determine a corporate culture. They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization. In addition, there will also be an extant internal culture within the workforce. Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which, to an extent, affect the whole system. Task culture can be imported. For example, computer technicians will have expertise, language and behaviors gained independently of the organization, but their presence can influence the culture of the organization as a whole.

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. TQM has been widely used in manufacturing, education, government, and service industries, as well as NASA space and science programs.

Total Quality provides an umbrella under which everyone in the organization can strive and create customer satisfaction at continually lower real costs.

Human Resource Development

In terms of recruitment and selection it is important to consider carrying out a thorough job analysis to determine the level of skills/technical abilities, competencies, flexibility of the employee required etc. At this point it is important to consider both the internal and external factors that can have an effect on the recruitment of employees. The external factors are those out-with the powers of the organization and include issues such as current and future trends of the labor market e.g. skills, education level, government investment into industries etc. On the other hand internal influences are easier to control, predict and monitor, for example management styles or even the organizational culture.

In order to know the business environment in which any organization operates, three major trends should be considered:

* Demographics – the characteristics of a population/workforce, for example, age, gender or social class. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pension offerings, insurance packages etc.
* Diversity – the variation within the population/workplace. Changes in society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of "baby-boomers" or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago. Also, over recent years organizations have had to become more diverse in their employment practices to cope with the lower work ethic of the newer generations. The service industry for example, has embraced those "baby-boomers" desiring to reenter the workforce. Traditional advocates of "workplace diversity" simply advocate an employee base that is a mirror reflection of the make-up of society insofar as race, gender, sexual orientation, etc. These advocates focus on the social engineering theory without understanding the more important points: diversity of ideas to prevent stagnation of products and business development; expanding the customer base through "outreach"; and profit. Alarmists and advocates of social engineering theory cite a "rise in discrimination, unfair dismissal and sexual/racial harassment cases" as an indicator of the need for more diversity legislation. While such measures have a significant effect on the organization, they effect little or no real change in advancing diversity of ideas in the workplace. Anti-discrimination laws and regulations do require businesses to undertake a cost-benefit analysis. The result of this analysis is often to adopt an approach that generally recognizes gender, racial, and sexual orientation diversity as a cheaper alternative to fighting endless litigation. In summary, diversity, based on social engineering “is about creating a working culture that seeks, respects and values difference” without regard to how diversity increases productive and unity of effort.
* Skills and qualifications – as industries move from manual to a more managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. If the market is "tight" (i.e. not enough staff for the jobs), employers will have to compete for employees by offering financial rewards, community investment, etc.

In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labour market the following should be understood:

* Geographical spread – how far is the job from the individual? The distance to travel to work should be in line with the pay offered by the organization and the transportation and infrastructure of the area will also be an influencing factor in deciding who will apply for a post.
* Occupational structure – the norms and values of the different careers within an organization. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structure namely craft (loyalty to the profession), organization career (promotion through the firm) and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed).
* Generational difference –different age categories of employees have certain characteristics, for example their behavior and their expectations of the organization.

While recruitment methods are wide and varied, it is important that the job is described correctly and that any personal specifications are stated. Job recruitment methods can be through job centres, employment agencies/consultants, headhunting, and local/national newspapers. It is important that the correct media is chosen to ensure an appropriate response to the advertised post.

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